In order to oversee, co-ordinate and monitor the development of hydro power in the State of Arunachal Pradesh, the State Govt. has created a separate department namely “Department of Hydro Power Development”.
Formal recognition of organizational psychology , of course, does not mean the spontaneous emergence of a new scientific field . In this science quite a long prehistory , during which there was not only a gradual accumulation of knowledge , but also to rethink the very subject of the study. The organization as a " differentiated and mutually orderly association of individuals and groups who together implement some of the goals and operating on the basis of certain rules and procedures " - an extremely complicated . It is difficult to determine not only the object but also the boundaries of the object of research in general: under this definition fall within the family, the group and the company and the state , and even supranational entities (eg , the UN or the IMF). Which of these communities selected as a model for the study? Can you find any similarities in so many different forms of organization ? What is the specificity of psychological research is the organization?
Another challenge is to ensure that the organization - the phenomenon is extremely dynamic and constantly evolving . For example, we have already mentioned , DuPont , transformed in 1917 into the largest financial and industrial group of the United States , with an annual income of hundreds of millions of dollars, thirteen years earlier, was nothing like the military-industrial giant. In 1904, the owners almost sold the company to competitors, and then gave way to distant relatives ( three nephews ) for $ 2100 (!) In cash and several million dollars of debt obligations. Does not that impressive transformation : mikrofaktora of economic life in the macro factors of human history ! In this context, the development of organizational psychology can be represented as a process of understanding the object of study ( from a narrow , private understanding of the increasingly broad , holistic ) and highlight it specific to the subject of organizational psychology . This was accompanied by accumulation and generation of new knowledge, providing increasingly broad and deep understanding of the subject of the study. Let us follow the logic of this process.
It is well known that the principles on which the modern organization , were first formulated in the late XIX - early XX century, the founders of scientific management, and above all F.Teylorom ( 1856-1915 ) . That's Scientific Management was one of the main " primary sources " of organizational psychology and in many ways defined the scope of the original object of study. The key moment was the rationalization of scientific management of individual work, based on detailed research of labor movements , timing , design work tasks , jobs , etc. Thus, as the main " building blocks " of the organization was considered an individual employee , the individual , who became the main object of study of scientific management . As it soon turned out, the psychological characteristics of this object had a significant , if not the highest priority for the success of the organization.
By the time the interest in the management of psychological science, one of its most developed branches of experimental psychology has been engaged in a quest objective principles , or "laws" of human behavior. Experimental psychologists have tried to identify how people (or animals ) react to certain events or stimuli under controlled experimental conditions. In this case, the focus was on identifying the most general principles that characterize the behavior of people. These principles are , of course, are extremely useful for understanding human behavior in organizational settings . They can be successfully used to predict how the various organizational variables or conditions affect the activities and behavior of employees. Another discipline that could be used to study the individual in the organization , was a differential psychologist studying individual differences . At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, scientists interested in identifying , describing and measuring the differences in people 's abilities , personality characteristics , interests , etc. Combining the methods of scientific observation with advances in psychological measurement and data analysis , and led to the creation of differential psychology .
Thus, at the intersection of these three areas : scientific management, experimental psychology and differential psychology - in the first quarter of the XX century a new area , called industrial psychology . The subject of study of the new science was working individual . This science has been able to analyze the organization at the individual level , to identify similarities and differences between workers, to use this knowledge in the design of jobs, work processes and machines, as well as to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various combinations of " worker - machine - the process ." The Great Depression of the 30s exposed the hidden contradictions of the new organizational system based on the principles of scientific management . On the one hand, large industrial organizations through the use of machines, as well as the rationalization and standardization of work procedures and work processes have achieved unprecedented performance. On the other hand, the efficiency was crossed low purchasing power of the population and, consequently , loss of sales and the subsequent need to reduce and even collapse of production. The very conditions of mass production with their simplified , mashinoobraznoy job strain relations between managers and workers, causing permanent explosive tension in the workplace.
All this required a greater involvement of the state in market regulation , and greater attention to the management of psychological phenomena such as feelings , motivations , interpersonal relationships between employees , etc. However, the years before the Second World War , proved to be very fruitful for many areas of psychology. In social psychology, began the study and measurement of attitudes ( relations ) , clinical psychology rapidly escalated beyond Freudian , educational psychology approaches successfully joined Piaget to advances in the measurement of individual differences .
In industrial psychology has revolutionized made famous Houtornskie experiments that demonstrated the limitations of looking at the organization as a community of individuals. Clearly showing that the powerful influence that the working group has on the individual, these studies have largely determined the new look at the subject of research psychologists in the organization. This is increasingly becoming the subject of a working group . In addition, Houtornskie research gave rise to a deeper look at the individual as well as the development of so -called school of "human relations" . Feelings , motives and inner experiences of workers were seen as important organizational variables . Further development is the use of psychological tests in the organizational environment , which now includes not only pure performance level , but also grassroots management personnel .
Thus , during this period in the depths of industrial psychology formed three relatively distinct areas , armed and supported by specific methods for its adherents : 1. school of "human relations " (" sotsioindustrialnaya " psychology ) 2. organizational test (known as the psychology of personnel selection - personnel psychology); 3 . experimental and industrial design (experimental-industrial engineering), experimental psychology united the methods to industrial design . Representatives of the school of "human relations " , based on the work of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers , began to emphasize the importance of issues of personal growth and the realization of potential employees. This paved the way for approval in the minds of managers and employees of organizations psiholicheskih new concepts of job satisfaction and motivation. In psychology, professional selection to develop new statistical methods allowed the move to create a battery of tests and the formation of new approaches to the measurement of performance.
Synthesis methods of experimental psychology and industrial design proved to be extremely fruitful for the creation of new systems of "man - machine" during the Second World War. This direction also gained its independence, transformed in the postwar years in engineering psychology .
Until recently, the relationship of these three areas has not received sufficient recognition . Only in recent years more and more to establish the concept of systemic interdependence of socio - organizational structure, processes and equipment , as well as the psychological characteristics of employees.
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Department of Power, Government of Arunachal Pradesh APEDA MNRE Planning Department NIC-Arunachal Pradesh CEA MOP AHEC-IIT Roorrkee